Category Archives: Indian Penal Code ( IPC )

The Indian Penal Code (IPC) 1860 is the main criminal code of India. It is a comprehensive code intended to cover all substantive aspects of criminal law. The code was drafted in 1860 on the recommendations of first law commission of India established in 1834 under the Chairmanship of  Lord Macauley. It came into force in the year 1862. The Code has since been amended several times and is now supplemented by other criminal provisions.

Crime And Elements Of Crime

This article discusses Crime and its elements. Criminal liability of a person is based on the fundamental principles of the commission of a wrongful act- actus reus, combined with a wrongful intention- mens rea. This principle has been embodied in the maxim “actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea”, which means “an act does not make one… Read More »

History of Punishment

This article titled “History of Punishment” provides an insight into the development of punishments for every criminal activity. The concept of punishment is based on the principle of lex talionis which means “the law of retaliation, whereby a punishment resembles the offence committed in kind and degree”. Introduction Humankind is governed by punishments for every criminal activity as… Read More »

Trivial Acts

Trivial acts are justifiable acts and ultimately exempt an individual from criminal liability. Every penal rule is subject to several limitations and no offence can be absolute without exemptions.  According to Blackstone, “general exceptions are defences that can be regarded as those circumstances where the prosecution has been unable to prove all the requirements of liability beyond a… Read More »

Insight to The General Exceptions Of IPC

Chapter IV of the Indian Penal Code deals with the ‘General Exceptions’ of IPC. This chapter spanning from Section 76 to 106 exempts the criminal liability imposed on the certain individual subject to their acts being covered under any one of the general exceptions. In other words, a person who has committed an offence may due to the… Read More »

Evolution Of Law Of Crime Over The Years

This article discusses the evolution Of Law Of Crime over the years. he contemporary criminal law framework of India resembles the British framework to a large extent, nevertheless, amendments have been made with the changing socio-economic times. Introduction Law is an established set of guidelines implemented by Govt in order for the individuals to ensure public order and… Read More »

Commutation of Death Sentence and Life Imprisonment

Introduction Commutation of a sentence means the process of substituting the sentence provided by a competent with a lesser or lighter sentence. The head of the state has the supreme authority to exercise the executive power for granting pardon after taking into account several reasons and circumstances which may not be apposite for consideration before the courts. There… Read More »

Acts Done Under Compulsion

The article discusses the acts done by the person under compulsion. Certain people are immune to criminal activity. Chapter IV of the IPC,’ General Exceptions’ which includes Articles 76 to 106, exempts some citizens from criminal responsibility. Even if a person is prima facie part of a statute defining an offence or imposing a punishment, an act or… Read More »