Admission | Law of Evidence

This article on ‘Admission’ is written by Aritra Sarkar and provides an overview of the concept of admission under the Indian Evidence Act. I. Introduction Section 17 of the evidence act defines admission it says that “An admission is a statement, oral or documentary or contained in electronic form, which suggests any inference as to any fact in issue or……...

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Offences Against Public Tranquillity

Offences Against Public Tranquillity | Overview Unlawful Assembly: Section 141 Rioting: S. 146 – 148 Affray: S. 159 Promoting Enmity between Classes: S. 153A, 153B, 153AA This article “Offences Against Public Tranquility” deals with the offence of Unlawful Assembly, Rioting, Affray and Promoting Enmity between Classes in detail. I. Unlawful Assembly: Section 141 The overall idea behind criminalizing of……...

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Crime And Elements Of Crime

Crime And Elements Of Crime | Overview Actus Reus Act to Forbidden by Law Causation in Crime Principle of Ordinary Hazard Principle of Reasonable Foresight Unexpected Interventions Mens Rea This article discusses Crime and its elements. Criminal liability of a person is based on the fundamental principles of the commission of a wrongful act- actus reus, combined with……...

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History of Punishment

History of Punishment | Overview Introduction Ancient Penal Law Hindu Law Muslim Law Development of Punishment Before And After Prisons Were Built Capital Punishment This article titled “History of Punishment” provides an insight into the development of punishments for every criminal activity. The concept of punishment is based on the principle of lex talionis which means “the law……...

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Sources of Muslim Law in India

The sources of Muslim law can be classified into two categories, i.e. (a) Primary Sources and (b) Secondary Sources. Primary sources are those sources that are based on religious beliefs mentioned in holy scriptures or books. And here the legislatures and judiciary are the secondary sources. Introduction Islam is one of the most followed religions in the world….…...

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Trivial Acts | Section 95 in The Indian Penal Code 1860

Trivial Acts | Section 95 in The Indian Penal Code 1860 | Overview Introduction – Trivial Acts Harm- Meaning Offences that relate to a women’s modesty Offences under public welfare enactments Compounding of trivial offences Trivial acts are justifiable acts and ultimately exempt an individual from criminal liability. Every penal rule is subject to several limitations and no……...

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Offences Relating to Documents and Property Marks

Offences Relating to Documents and Property Marks | Overview Offences Relating to Documents (Sections 463 to 477A) Nature and Scope of sections 463, 464, 465 IPC Making a False Electronic Record  or False Document Forged Document Comprehends Creating a New Document Making Documents by Mechanical Means Forging a Document by Affixing Own Signature Aggravated Forms of Forgery Forgery……...

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Offences Relating to Weights and Measures

Offences Relating to Weights and Measures | Overview Fraudulent use of the false instrument for weighing Fraudulent use of false weight or measure Being in possession of false weight or measure Making or selling false weight or measure Proposal for Reforms Chapter XIII, IPC, deals with weight and measure offences. With regard to any standard weight or measure,……...

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Facts showing the State of Mind

This article on ‘Facts showing the State of Mind’ is written by Tejas Vasani and discusses the concept of such facts as are relevant in showing the state of mind. I. Introduction Certain offences are culpable on the basis of the state of mind of the accused. In order to prove such offences, certain facts which show the existence……...

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Insight to The General Exceptions Of IPC

Insight to The General Exceptions Of IPC | Overview Mistake of Facts Judicial Acts: S. 77-78 Accident and Misfortune: S. 80 – 81 Infancy: S. 82 – 83 Insanity or Mental Abnormality: S. 82 – 83 Intoxication: S. 85 – 86 Consent and Compulsion: S. 87 – 94 Trivial Acts: S. 95 Private Defence: S. 96 – 106 Chapter IV of the Indian Penal Code deals……...

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