The 'Case Analysis: Balfour v. Balfour (1919)' presents a crucial precedent in contract law.

The 'Case Analysis: Balfour v. Balfour (1919)' presents a crucial precedent in contract law, emphasizing that agreements occurring in domestic or social settings, without an intent to establish legal obligations, are not enforceable by law.

Case Title: Balfour v. Balfour

Citation: (1919) 2 KB 571

Court: Court of Appeal

Bench: Warrington LJ, Duke LJ and Atkin LJ

Date of Judgment: 25th June 1919


  • Mr. and Mrs. Balfour were a married couple, who visited England for vacation.
  • Mrs. Balfour during the vacation was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, and her doctor advised her to stay in England.
  • Meanwhile, Mr. Balfour has to return to his workplace in Ceylon and he promised her to send 30 pounds every month for her maintenance.
  • Mr. Balfour subsequently stopped sending money, and this made Mrs. Balfour sue her husband for maintenance.

Issues Involved

  • Did Mr. Balfour ever intend to enter into any agreement with his wife, Mrs. Balfour?
  • Is the agreement between Mr. and Mrs. Balfour valid in nature at all?
  • Is the contract between husband and wife enforceable in a court of law?


The appellant (Mr.Balfour) argued that the monthly expenses were a personal agreement and not a legal one. Thus, the husband had no intention to create any legal contract, so his wife went to court later. Meanwhile, the respondent (Mrs. Balfour) stated that the wife was liable to get money because the husband entered into a domestic contract by making an offer of 30 pounds every month, the wife agreed and decided to stay back in England. Mr. Balfour's failure to send the money could be considered a breach of contract.

Procedural History

Mrs. Balfour moved to the Division Bench of the King and took legal action against her husband for the maintenance and basic assistance from him. The lower court favoured Mrs Balfour and held that Mr Balfour was liable to pay her the maintenance. The court interpreted the situation as the petitioner and defendant entered into a contract with the consent of the wife for the monthly monetary transfer. In the year 1918, Mrs Balfour was granted a decree nisi, and in the same year, an order for her alimony was granted. Her husband, in that case, appeared in the higher court as he was not happy with the judgement of the lower court.


Lord Justice Atkins in this case stated that personal contracts between family will not be considered as legal contracts that will be binding on the parties. This case introduced the concept of Legal Relationship, which required to creation of a legally binding contract. Thus, no legal contract can be formed between the spouses as they did not intend to have legal consequences while having the agreement.

The court stated that such agreements, like walking together or hospitality, do not result in contracts, even if there may be consideration that parties do not intend to have legal consequences. The court concluded that the oral evidence provided by the wife did not establish a contract, and the court's judgment was incorrect. The court decided not to interfere with the issues of the spouses.

Principle of Balfour v. Balfour in 21st Century

Concerning personal agreements and their enforceability in the 21st century, their relevance and limitations. Family dynamics and structures along with cultural beliefs have changed in the present time. Some of them are:

In the present period, family structure has become more diverse, a traditional family agreement among different members could be called a subtle approach.

The chances are that the documents can be misused in the absence of enforceable personal agreements. The awareness of this issue in the present has increased and the rights and social justice issues are paid attention to. The creation of balance is required to protect the parties.

Rule of Law

English Contract Law is applicable in this case and according to the English contract consideration and intention to form a legally binding contract are the two essentials that should be present. The agreement between the couple has not fulfilled the essentials of the contract law. Thus, the agreement between the couple is domestic and thus a non-legally binding contract.


The Balfour case is about how family agreements are not contracts and not enforceable in a court of law. Further, in 21st century requires changes as society is evolving, while legally keeping diverse families in mind. Each case varies and special situations occur requiring special attention to its facts and intentions.

Later the judgement was applied to cases like like Jones v. Padavatton, [1969] 2 All ER 616, in this case, the petitioner’s appeal was successful and was awarded the possession of the house. The lack of formality in the agreement between parties shows no intention to create a legally binding contract, leaving the defendant with no defence. Another case is Shadwell v. Shadwell, (1860) 9 C.B. (N.S.) 159, the court ruled that the performance of the marriage contract was a consideration even when it involved a third party. The plaintiff’s wife was influenced by his marriage, which altered his status and may have resulted in financial obligations.

Thus, Family agreements differ from social agreements as they do not evoke a presumption of legality. Family agreements are considered non-legal agreements until solid evidence to prove it wrong is presented before the court. For example, a joint bank account or vehicle purchase is regarded as an agreement and does not result in a legal relationship.

Shruti Roy

Shruti Roy

Shruti is a student of Symbiosis Law School, Noida. As a young and aspiring legal enthusiast, she finds herself captivated by the intricate world of corporate law.

Next Story