Here are a few passages along with question and answer prepared especially to help the students who are willing to crack CLAT UG.

Here are a few passages along with question and answer prepared especially to help the students who are willing to crack CLAT UG.

"‍Language is the blood of the soul into which thoughts run and out of which they grow".‍...Oliver Wendell Holmes

CLAT UG: Comprehension Passages with Q/A

1. It is difficult to compare countries because various factors such as size, culture, history, geography, natural endowments, geopolitics and internal polity come into play. There are some goals which can be achieved by smaller countries; but sometimes smaller countries find it difficult to embark upon certain big technological plans even if they have the funds, because the size of the domestic market is too small. If we consider the bigger countries, the closest comparison to India is China, though there are many crucial differences.

The Chinese vision is to prepare the country for entry into the ranks of mid-level developed nations by the middle of the twenty-first century. Acceleration of the nation's economic growth and social development by relying on advances in science and technology is pivotal in this.

Documents describing the Chinese vision state that science and technology constitute premier productive forces and represent a great revolutionary power that can propel economic and social development. It is interesting to note that the main lessons the Chinese have drawn from their past performance is their failure to promote science and technology as strategic tools for empowerment. They also point to the absence of mechanisms and motivations in their economic activity to promote dependence on science and technology. Similarly, they hold that their scientific and technological efforts were not oriented towards economic growth. Consequently, they conclude that a large number of scientific and technological achievements were not converted into productive forces as they were too far removed from China's immediate economic and social needs. The Chinese vision is therefore aimed at exploiting state-of-art science and technology to enhance the nation's overall power and strength, to improve people's living standards, to focus on resolving problems encountered in large-scale industrial and agricultural production and to effectively control and alleviate pressures brought on by population, resources and the environment. By the year 2000, China had aimed at bringing the main industrial sectors up to the technological levels achieved by the developed countries in the 1970s or 80s and by 2020 to the level they would have attained by the early twenty-first century. The aim is to bridge the overall gap with the advanced world. There is a special emphasis on research and development of high technologies that would find defense applications. Some of these technologies are critical for improving the features of key conventional weapons. Some technologies are meant for enhancing future military capabilities. Other efforts are aimed at maintaining the momentum to develop capabilities for cutting-edge defense technologies. They call for unremitting efforts in this regard with the aim of maintaining effective self defense and nuclear deterrent capabilities and to enable parity in defense, science and technology with the advanced world.

Q1. Comparison between two countries becomes difficult because:

I. The countries differ in their internal political systems.

II. Each country has its own demography.

III. The countries with homogenous backgrounds are many in number.

A. Only I

B. Only II

C. I and II

D. All of the above

Answer – C

Q2. What is the goal of China to be accomplished by the middle of 21st century?

A. To become one of the most developed nations.

B. To surpass the level of all middle-level developed nations by a good margin.

C. To be the most influential superpower.

D. None of these

Answer – D

Q3. What, according to the Chinese vision, can boost socio-economic development of China?

A. Research and development

B. Science and technology

C. Premier productive forces

D. Minds united with revolutionary powers

Answer – B

Q4. Which of the following fields has particularly been valued by China?

A. Building high-quality infrastructure

B. Innovation in the field of Medicine

C. Defence applications based on high technologies

D. Agricultural production

Answer – C

Q5. Which of the following have the Chinese identified as the pitfall/pitfalls from their past?

I. Lack of orientation of science and technology towards economic growth.

II. Lack of mechanism in their economic activities to promote use of science and technology.

III. Excessive emphasis on science and technology as a strategic measure for empowerment.

A. Only I

B. Only II

C. Only III

D. I and II

Answer – D

2. Political education has many connotations. It may be defined as the preparation of a citizen to take well-informed, responsible and sustained action for participation in the national struggle in order to achieve the socio-economic objectives of the country. The predominant socio-economic objectives in India are the abolition of poverty and the creation of a modern democratic, secular and socialist society in place of the present traditional, feudal, hierarchical and in egalitarian one.

Under the colonial rule, the Congress leaders argued that political education was an important part of education and refused to accept the official view that education and politics should not be mixed with one another. But when they came to power in 1947 they almost adopted the British policy and began to talk of education being defiled by politics. ‘Hands off education’ was the call to political parties. But in spite of it, political infiltration into the educational system has greatly increased in the sense that different political parties vie with each other to capture the mind of teachers and students. The wise academicians wanted political support, without political interference. What we have actually received is infinite political interference with little genuine political support. This interference with the educational system by political parties for their own ulterior motives is no political education at all and with the all round growth of elitism, it is hardly a matter for surprise that real political education within the school system (which really means the creation of a commitment to social transformation) has been even weaker than in the pre-independence period.

During that time only, the struggle for freedom came to an end and the major non-formal agency of political education disappeared. The press played a major role by providing some political education. But it did not utilize the opportunity to the full and the strangle hold of vested interests continued to dominate it. The same can be said of political parties as well as of other institutions and agencies outside the school system which can be expected to provide political education. After analyzing all these things, it appears that we have made no progress in genuine political education in the post-education period and have even slided back in some respects. For instance, the education system has become even more elite-oriented. Patriotism has become the first casualty. The father of the nation gave us the courage to oppose government when it was wrong, in a disciplined fashion and on basic principles. Today, we have even lost the courage to fight on basic issues in a disciplined manner because agitational and anarchic politics for individual, group or party aggrandizement has become common. In the recent times, the education system continues to support domination of the privileged groups and domestication of the underprivileged ones. The situation will not change unless we take vigorous steps to provide genuine political education on an adequate scale. This is one of the major educational reforms we need, and if it is not carried out, mere linear expansion of the existing system of formal education will only support the status quo and hamper radical social transformation.

Q1. Which word is nearly opposite in meaning as “defile” as used in the passage?

A. Disparage

B. forgery

C. degenerate

D. sanctify

Answer – D

Q 2. According to the passage, what should be the main purpose of political education?

A. To champion the cause of elitism

B. To bring qualitative change in the entire education system

C. To create an egalitarian society

D. To prepare the young generation with high intellectual acumen.

Answer – C

Q3. How has politics been related to educational institutions after independence?

A. Although they got political support but there was no interference of politics.

B. It is clear that they got almost no political support as well as political interference.

C. They got political support at the cost of political interference.

D. There was substantial interference without political support.

Answer – D

Q4. Based on the passage, which is the major drawback of the present education system?

A. The education system mainly represents the oppressed sections of the society.

B. The present education system promotes the domination of the privileged few.

C. It is based on the British model of education.

D. It is highly hierarchical and egalitarian in nature.

Answer – B

Q5. Which is the most opposite in meaning to the word ‘hamper’ as used in the passage?

A. Accelerate

B. envision

C. foster

D. initiate

Answer – C

3. A fact that draws our attention is that, according to his position in life, an extravagant man is either admired or loathed. A successful business man does nothing to increase his popularity by being prudent with his money. A person who is wealthy is expected to lead a luxurious life and to be lavish with his hospitality. If he is not so, he is considered mean, and his reputation in business may even suffer in consequence. The paradox remains that he had not been careful with his money in the first place; he would never have achieved his present wealth.

Among the low income group, a different set of values exists. The young clerk, who makes his wife a present of a new dress when he has not paid his house rent, is condemned as extravagant. Carefulness with money to the point of meanness is applauded as a virtue. Nothing in his life is considered more worthy than paying his bills. The ideal wife for such a man separates her housekeeping money into joyless little piles – so much for rent, for food, for the children’s shoes, she is able to face the milkman with equanimity every, month satisfied with her economizing ways , and never knows the guilt of buying something she can’t really afford .

As for myself, I fall neither of these categories. If I have money to spare I can be extravagant, but when, as is usually the case, I am hard up and then I am the meanest man imaginable.

Q1. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the passage:

A. Being extravagant is always condemnable.

B. The cause of poverty is extravagance.

C. Extravagance is a part of the rich as well as of the poor.

D. Stingy habits of the poor.

Answer – C

Q2. According to the passage the person, who is a successful businessman and wealthy

A. Is expected to have lavish lifestyle.

B. Should not bother about popularity.

C. Is more popular if he appears to be wasting away his time.

D. Must be extravagant before achieving success.

Answer – A

Q3. The phrase ‘lavish with his hospitality’ in the third sentence of the first paragraph means

A. Thoughtful in spending only on guests and strangers.

B. Unconcerned in treating his friends and relatives.

C. Stinginess in dealing with his relatives.

D. Extravagance in entertaining guest.

Answer – D

Q4. The word ‘paradox’ in the last sentence of the first paragraph means

A. Statement based on the popular opinion

B. a statement that seems self-contradictory but in reality expresses a possible truth.

C. Statement based on facts

D. A word that brings out the hidden meaning

Answer – B

Q5. What is the meaning of the word “equanimity”?

A. Calmness

B. Discomposure

C. Equivocal

D. Dubious

Answer – A

4. If a person suddenly encounters any terrible danger, the change of nature one undergoes is equally great. Sometimes fear numbs our senses. Like animals, one stands still, powerless to move a step in fright or to lift a hand in defense of our lives, and sometimes one is seized with panic, and again, act more like the inferior animals than rational beings. On the other hand, frequently in cases of sudden extreme peril, which cannot be escaped by flight, and must be instantly faced, even the most timid men at once as if by miracle, become possessed of the necessary courage, sharp quick apprehension and swift decision. This is a miracle very common in nature. Man and the inferior animals alike, when confronted with almost certain death ‘ gather resolution from despair’ but there can really be no trace of so debilitating a feeling in the person fighting, or prepared to fight for dear life. At such times the mind is clearer than it has ever been; the nerves are steel, there is nothing felt but a wonderful strength and daring. Looking back at certain perilous moments in my own life, I remember them with a kind of joy, not that there was any joyful excitement then, but because they broadened my horizon, lifted me for a time above myself.

Q1. The title that best suits the passage would be:-

A. The Will to Fight

B. The Miracle of Confronting Danger

C. The Change of Nature

D. Courage and Panic

Answer – B

Q2 . A man may react to sudden danger in three different ways . What are they?

A. He may flee in panic, or fight back or stand still.

B. He may be paralyzed with fear, seized with panic or act like an inferior animal.

C. He may be paralyzed with fear, or seized with panic, or as if by miracle, become possessed of the necessary courage, and face the danger.

D. He may be paralyzed with fear, run away or fight.

Answer – C

Q3. What is the meaning of the word debilitating ?

A. enfeeble

B. strengthen

C. debase

D. thriving

Answer – A

Q4. Explain the phrase ‘gather resolution from danger’.

A. Find peace in times of difficulty.

B. A state of utter hopelessness makes one determined to face the difficulty.

C. To remain calm and not to lose hope.

D. To be enthusiastic and brave the odds.

Answer – B

Q5. The author feels happy in the recollection of dangers faced and overcome because

A. They brought him a new experience.

B. They added a new perspective and lifted him above himself for a time.

C. These experiences boosted his confidence.

D. He felt elated as he was alive.

Answer – B

5. A sanctuary may be defined as a place where Man is passive and the rest of Nature active. Till quite recently Nature had her own sanctuaries, where man either did not go at all or only as a tool-using animal in comparatively small numbers. But now, in this machinery age, there is no place left where man cannot go with overwhelming forces at his command. He can strangle to death all the nobler wild life in the world to-day. To-morrow he certainly will have done so, unless he exercises due foresight and self-control in the mean time.

There is not the slightest doubt that birds and mammals are now being killed off much faster than they can breed. And it is always the largest and noblest forms of life that suffer most. The whales and elephants, lions and eagles, go. The rats and flies, and all mean parasites, remain. This is inevitable in certain cases. But it is wanton killing off that I am speaking of to-night. Civilized man begins by destroying the very forms of wild life he learns to appreciate most when he becomes still more civilized. The obvious remedy is to begin conservation at an earlier stage, when it is easier and better in every way, by enforcing laws for close seasons, game preserves, the selective protection of certain species, and sanctuaries.

I have just defined a sanctuary as a place where man is passive and the rest of Nature active. But this general definition is too absolute for any special case. The mere fact that man has to protect a sanctuary does away with his purely passive attitude. Then, he can be beneficially active by destroying pests and parasites, like bot-flies or mosquitoes, and by finding antidotes for diseases like the epidemic which periodically kills off the rabbits and thus starves many of the carnivora to death. But, except in cases where experiment has proved his intervention to be beneficial, the less he upsets the balance of Nature the better, even when he tries to be an earthly Providence.

Q1. The author implies that his first definition of a sanctuary is

A. Totally wrong

B. Somewhat idealistic

C. unhelpful

D. indefensible

E. immutable

Answer – A

Q2. The author’s argument that destroying bot-flies and mosquitoes would be a beneficial action is most weakened by all of the following except

A. parasites have an important role to play in the regulation of populations

B. the elimination of any species can have unpredictable effects on the balance of nature

C. the pests themselves are part of the food chain

D. these insects have been introduced to the area by human activities

E. elimination of these insects would require the use of insecticides that kill a wide range of insects

Answer – D

Q3. It can be inferred that the passage is

A. part of an article in a scientific journal

B. extracted from the minutes of a nature club

C. part of a speech delivered to an educated audience

D. a speech delivered in a court of law

E. from a polemical article published in a magazine

Answer – C

Q4. What should be the most appropriate central idea of this passage

A. Author argues that man kills big animals but saves mosquitoes & other parasites.

B. Man is selfish by nature so he is up against the wild life which is harmful for his survival

C. Ecological balance, if not maintained by man will be harmful in long run.

D. Author proposes a programme for not disturbing the balance of nature as it is beneficial for mankind.

E. In view of the author man should not intervene in natural environments.

Answer – C

Q5. Tone of the Author as expressed in the passage can be best described

A. Descriptive to analytical

B. Sarcastically humorous

C. Objective to narrative

D. Sarcastically critical to suggestive

E. Ironically sarcastic to negative

Answer – D

6. Like most of my generation, I was brought up on the saying: ‘Satan finds some mischief for idle hands to do.’ Being a highly virtuous child, I believed all that I was told, and acquired a conscience which has kept me working hard down to the present moment. But although my conscience has controlled my actions, my opinions have undergone a revolution. I think that there is far too much work done in the world, that immense harm is caused by the belief that work is virtuous, and that what needs to be preached in modern industrial countries is quite different from what always has been preached. Everyone knows the story of the traveller in Naples who saw twelve beggars lying in the sun, and offered a lira to the laziest of them. Eleven of them jumped up to claim it, so he gave it to the twelfth. This traveller was on the right lines. But in countries which do not enjoy Mediterranean sunshine, idleness is more difficult, and a great public propaganda will be required to inaugurate it. I hope that, after reading the following, the leaders of the Y.M.C.A. will start a campaign to induce good young men to do nothing. If so, I shall not have lived in vain.

But in all seriousness, I truly believe that a great deal of harm is being done in the modern world by belief in the virtuousness of work, and that the road to happiness and prosperity lies in an organized diminution of work.

First of all: what is work? Work is of two kinds: first, altering the position of matter at or near the earth’s surface relatively to other such matter; second, telling other people to do so. The first kind is unpleasant and ill paid; the second is pleasant and highly paid. The second kind is capable of indefinite extension: there are not only those who give orders, but those who give advice as to what orders should be given. Usually two opposite kinds of advice are given simultaneously by two organized bodies of men; this is called politics. The skill required for this kind of work is not knowledge of the subjects as to which advice is given, but knowledge of the art of persuasive speaking and writing, i.e. of advertising.

From the beginning of civilization until the Industrial Revolution, a man could, as a rule, produce by hard work little more than was required for the subsistence of himself and his family. The small surplus above bare necessities was not left to those who produced it, but was appropriated by warriors and priests. Much that we take for granted about the desirability of work is derived from this system, and, being pre-industrial, is not adapted to the modern world. Modern technology has made it possible for leisure, within limits, to be not the prerogative of small privileged classes, but a right evenly distributed throughout the community. The morality of work is the morality of slaves, and the modern world has no need of slavery.

It is obvious that, in primitive communities, peasants, left to themselves, would not have parted with the slender surplus upon which the warriors and priests subsisted, but would have either produced less or consumed more. At first, sheer force compelled them to produce and part with the surplus. Gradually, however, it was found possible to induce many of them to accept an ethic according to which it was their duty to work hard, although part of their work went to support others in idleness. The conception of duty, speaking historically, has been a means used by the holders of power to induce others to live for the interests of their masters rather than for their own. Of course, the holders of power conceal this fact from themselves by managing to believe that their interests are identical with the larger interests of humanity. Sometimes this is true; ancient Athenian slave-owners, for instance, employed part of their leisure in making a permanent contribution to civilization which would have been impossible under a just economic system. Leisure is essential to civilization, and in former times leisure for the few was only rendered possible by the labours of the many. But those labours were valuable, not because work is good, but because leisure is good. And with modern technology, it would be possible to distribute leisure justly without injury to civilization.

Q1. Which of the following best describes the relation between work, leisure, and civilization?

1] Leisure is what makes work valuable and equitable distribution of leisure is vital to civilization.

2] Leisure is important for civilization, but not as important as work, and the latter is what makes the former possible.

3] Leisure is vital to civilization, while work, as the product of an outdated social order, is irrelevant to modern civilization.

4] Though leisure is important for civilization, it is not possible for all members of society to enjoy it, as some must do productive work.

Answer – 1

Q2. Which of the following correctly states the gist of this passage?

1] Historically, leisure has been the privilege of only a few people. But this will soon change as modern technology changes contemporary civilization.

2] Historically, leisure has been the privilege of only a few people. But this is a relic of a pre-industrial society, and should have no place in modern civilization.

3] Historically, work has been unfairly emphasized over leisure. But this is a relic of a pre-industrial society, and should have no place in modern civilization.

4] Historically, work has been unfairly emphasized over leisure. But this will soon change as modern technology changes contemporary civilization.

Answer – 3

Q3. What is the point of the anecdote of the twelve beggars?

1] The laziest beggar was so lazy that he wasn’t even interested in making money.

2] Though the laziest beggar was not actually very lazy, he got the reward because he did not attempt to claim it.

3] The laziest beggar was so lazy that he did not even make an effort to prove that he was lazy.

4] The laziest beggar, unlike the others, did not care about material rewards, so he did not attempt to claim the lira.

Answer – 3

Q4. What is the relation of the first paragraph to the rest of the passage?

1] It provides a rather roundabout way of getting to the main point of the passage.

2] It provides a slightly tongue-in-cheek introduction to the serious topic of the passage.

3] It introduces the topic of the passage by using a proverb and anecdote that state the opposite.

4] It introduces, in brief, all the main points that the author goes on to discuss in the rest of the passage.

Answer – 2

Q5. The example of the ancient Athenian slave-owners in the last paragraph shows that ….

1] An unjust economic system deliberately cultivated by holders of power, sometimes affords them the leisure to make permanent contributions to civilization.

2] A just and equal society is not always a desirable thing, as the ancient Athenians, who had unjust practices like slavery, made permanent contributions to civilization.

3] Though the ancient Athenians had unjust practices like slavery, the slaves were treated so well that they even had leisure to make permanent contributions to civilization.

4] A just and equal society is not always a desirable thing, as the slaves of the ancient Athenians, in spite of the injustice meted out to them, made permanent contributions to civilization.

Answer - 1

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Updated On 29 Jun 2023 8:56 AM GMT
Ishita Goel

Ishita Goel

O.P. Jindal Global University, Sonipat

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