Category Archives: Indian Penal Code ( IPC )

The Indian Penal Code (IPC) 1860 is the main criminal code of India. It is a comprehensive code intended to cover all substantive aspects of criminal law. The code was drafted in 1860 on the recommendations of first law commission of India established in 1834 under the Chairmanship of  Lord Macauley. It came into force in the year 1862. The Code has since been amended several times and is now supplemented by other criminal provisions.

Offence of Abetment

Chapter V of the Indian Penal Code deals with the offences related to abetment. The English have similar laws governing the liability of person involved in abetting the commission of an offence. I. Introduction A person not committing a crime himself, may still encourage, urge, command, request, induce or assist a third party in committing the wrong and… Read More »

Kinds Of Punishments

There are five different kinds of punishments awarded by the Indian Penal Code, 1860 under Section 53, and they are Death, Life imprisonment, Simple or rigorous imprisonment, Fine and Forfeiture of property. Introduction The practice of awarding punishments is a very important part of the criminal justice system as it a form of society’s manifestation of the admonition… Read More »

Crime And Elements Of Crime

This article discusses Crime and its elements. Criminal liability of a person is based on the fundamental principles of the commission of a wrongful act- actus reus, combined with a wrongful intention- mens rea. This principle has been embodied in the maxim “actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea”, which means “an act does not make one… Read More »

History of Punishment

This article titled “History of Punishment” provides an insight into the development of punishments for every criminal activity. The concept of punishment is based on the principle of lex talionis which means “the law of retaliation, whereby a punishment resembles the offence committed in kind and degree”. Introduction Humankind is governed by punishments for every criminal activity as… Read More »

Commutation of Death Sentence and Life Imprisonment

Introduction Commutation of a sentence means the process of substituting the sentence provided by a competent with a lesser or lighter sentence. The head of the state has the supreme authority to exercise the executive power for granting pardon after taking into account several reasons and circumstances which may not be apposite for consideration before the courts. There… Read More »