Section 32- Cases in which statements of relevant fact by person who is dead or cannot be found etc. is relevant– Statement written or verbal, or relevant facts made by a person who is dead, or who cannot be found, or who has become incapable of giving evidence, or whose attendance cannot be procured without an amount of… Read More »

Damnum Sine Injuria and Injuria Sine Damno

Damnum Sine Injuria It means damage which is not coupled with an unauthorized interference with the plaintiff’s lawful right. Causing of damage, however substantial, to another person is not actionable in law unless there is also the violation of a legal right of the plaintiff. In Gloucester Grammar School case, the defendant had set-up a rival school to… Read More »

International Law: Definition and Types

International Law is composed of the laws, rules, and principles of general application that deal with the conduct of nation-states and international organizations among themselves as well as the relationships between nation-states and international organizations with persons, whether natural or juridical. I. Definition of International Law The term international law has been defined in a variety of ways… Read More »


Sources of International law mean those origins from where it attains its authority and coercive agency. According to the provisions of the Statute of International Court of Justice there are following sources, on the basis of which Court can decide a case: Treaties: – The term treaty may be defined as “the agreement entered into by Nation states… Read More »


By subjects of international law it is meant that those entities which possess international personality. In other words subjects of international law are those entities that have rights duties and obligations under international law and which have capacity to possess such right, duties and obligations by bringing international claims. In past the matter was not much debatable because… Read More »

Maritime Zones

TERRITORIAL WATERS Out to 12 nautical miles (22 kilometers; 14 miles) from the baseline, the coastal state is free to set laws, regulate use, and use any resource. Vessels were given the right of innocent passage through any territorial waters, with strategic straits allowing the passage of military craft as transit passage, in that naval vessels are allowed… Read More »

Cyber Crimes: Meaning, Types and Examples

The article titled “Cyber Crimes: Meaning, Types and Examples” deals with the definition of Cyber crimes and outline different types of crimes happening in and around us. Definition: Cyber Crimes At the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Offenders, in a workshop devoted to the issues of crimes related to computer networks,… Read More »