Important Concepts Relating To Research Design
The article 'Important Concepts Relating To Research Design' highlights the significance of research validity and reliability in producing credible and robust results.
The article 'Important Concepts Relating To Research Design' highlights the significance of research validity and reliability in producing credible and robust results. Research design is a crucial aspect of any scientific inquiry, as it lays the foundation for a systematic investigation and analysis of research questions. This article provides an overview of several essential concepts related to research design.
Introduction: Research Design
A Research Design is an overall scheme in which a research problem is formulated. It is a comprehensive strategy used by a researcher to integrate different components of the study in a manner that is coherent and logical. The Research design is a blueprint required for conducting the research process and acts as a general plan to streamline how the research will be fruitful and worthy for the researcher.
A research design is inclusive of data collection methods, instruments to be employed, data analysis methods etc. It is a carefully arranged scheme which decides how the research will be implemented. It refers to the selection and arrangement of conditions which will form a part of the research process. It can also be considered as a plan, structure and strategy of investigation opted for getting the anticipated results of the research questions and controlling variance, if any.
Significance of Research Design
Just like constructing any infrastructure requires a full-proof blueprint prepared by an architect. Similarly, the research process requires a blueprint that facilitates the researcher in the long run. It helps in enhancing the efficiency of the research by providing maximum results with minimal time, money and effort of the researcher. Amongst others, the following are the significance of formulating a proper research design:
- It reduces the inaccuracy in the research process.
- It helps in ensuring maximum efficiency and reliability.
- It eliminates any sort of bias/marginal errors.
- It ensures minimal wastage of time.
- It minimizes uncertainty and confusion along with any practical haphazard which might occur from the research problem.
- It helps in streamlining the research materials.
- It sets yardsticks for research and prevents blind searches.
Elements of Research Design
The research design is inclusive of various elements, which include as follows:
1) Methods for analyzing collected details
2) Type of research methodology involved
3) Probable objections to the research
4) Techniques to be implemented for collecting and analyzing research
5) Timeline of Research
6) Measurement of research analysis
7) Settings for the research study
Characteristics of Research Design
A proper research design ensures that the research process leads to successful results and such successful research studies encompass the data which is accurate and unbiased. To formulate such a research design, a research survey needs to be created that meets all of the main characteristics of a research design. There are four key characteristics of the research design:
1) Neutrality: The results intended from the research design should not include any research bias and shall ensure neutrality in the research process.
2) Reliability: If the research design is reliable, the researcher will expect a similar result in regularly conducted research. The design should be formulated in such a manner which ensures a uniform standard of results.
3) Validity: Since there are numerous measuring tools available to the researcher, the researcher should opt for a tool that helps him/her gauge results per the research objectives.
4) Generalization: The outcome of research design should be such, that it can be applied to a large population and shall not be limited just to a restricted sample. This ensures that any research survey can be further conducted on any specific part of a population and the accuracy will be similar in every case.
Types of Research Design
While conducting research, the researcher must be well versed in the different types of research designs to choose which shall be implemented based upon the need of the researcher. The research design can be broadly classified into quantitative and qualitative studies.
1) Qualitative Research
The Qualitative method determines relationships that exist between collected data and the observations which are based on specific mathematical calculations. These statistical methods either prove or disprove theories that are related to the phenomenon which exists naturally. This method usually involves small sample sizes and the researchers rely on qualitative observation research methods which focus on “why” a specific theory exists and “what” are the observations of the people regarding the same.
2) Quantitative Research
The Quantitative methods opt for the instances where statistical conclusions for collecting actionable insights are crucial. This method specifically emphasizes precision and objectivity, since the numbers provide a clearer perspective while taking critical decisions relating to the business and further play a crucial role in the growth of any organization. These insights which are drawn from complex numerical data and analysis often prove to be highly effective when they are used for making long-term decisions for any organization.
The Quantitative and Qualitative research design can be further subdivided into Descriptive Research Design, Correlational Research Design, Experimental Research Design, Diagnostic Research Design and Explanatory Research Design.
Formulating a research design is similar to creating a roadmap, wherein the researcher can see where they currently are, where they want to reach at the end of their research journey and opt for the most efficient and effective route for reaching their destination i.e., research objective. The researchers may have to face unexpected detours during the process, but sticking to the ultimate objective of the research and using the design appropriately might provide fruitful and worthy research outcomes.
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