Research Method v. Research Methodology
The article 'Research Method v. Research Methodology' covers research method refers to the specific techniques employed in a study.
The article 'Research Method v. Research Methodology' covers research method refers to the specific techniques employed in a study, while research methodology encompasses the broader framework that guides the research process as a whole. The article is a comparative study along with brief information about the research.
Brief Introduction: Research
Research means in search of knowledge. Research also means studying a specific topic through a systematic search for pertinent information. Research is the scientific pursuit of a specific subject. Scholars say that research is like a movement, a voyage of discovery. Usually, research is done for academic purposes. It has been said that research adds new knowledge to the body of current knowledge.
The research includes defining, formulating a hypothesis, collecting, organizing, evaluating, and forming a conclusion of a search. Finding the appropriate answer to the relevant issue through a methodical search is the objective of the research. It is typically to uncover previously undiscovered or hidden truths.
The following are the fundamental kind of research:
1. Descriptive research: This method includes Surveys and searches for facts of different kinds. A description of the current situation as it stands is the main goal of descriptive research.
2. Analytical research: In this method, the researcher must use already established data or facts and evaluators to come up with a critical evaluation of the issue.
3. Applied research focuses on solving a pressing problem that has an impact on society or a business or industrial organisation.
4. Fundamental research is primarily utilized in generalisations and the formation of theories.
5. Quantitative research is centred on measuring quantity or amount. It is used with phenomena that take on a numerical representation.
6. Qualitative research focuses on qualitative trends, which are events involving or connected to quality or kind.
7. Conceptual research focuses on a theory or set of abstract notions. It is frequently used by philosophers and other scholars to develop original ideas or to reinterpret preexisting ones.
8. Empirical research is a data-driven study that provides conclusions that can be validated by observation or experiment. It usually disregards theories and systems in favour of relying solely on experience or observation.
The term "research methods" can be used to refer to any techniques or methods utilised in the conduct of research. Research methods describe the actions and tools involved in choosing and putting together research approaches. In other words, research methods are all those techniques that a researcher uses to find answers to his or her research problem. There are two categories of research methods: qualitative research methods and quantitative research methods.
The qualitative research method refers to a method therein an open-ended and conversational research method is used. The use of this method is to gather detailed and comprehensive information on the research problem. Using this method provides light on the attitudes and behaviours of the subjects of the research. Focus groups, personal interviews, research involving case studies, ethnographic research, observation research, and record-keeping are just a few of the many methods used in qualitative research.
The term "quantitative research method" refers to a disciplined way of gathering data that may be measured using mathematical, computational, or statistical techniques. Quantitative research methodologies often provide knowledge that is presented as numerical data. In quantitative research, primary data collection methods include survey research, cross-sectional surveys, longitudinal surveys, correlational studies, causal-comparative studies, and experimental studies. Secondary data collection methods include educational institutions, public libraries, data from the internet, government and non-government resources, and commercial information sources, among others.
Library research, Field research, and Laboratory Research
Library research encompasses the examination of historical records as well as the examination of documents. This type of research employs techniques like note-taking, content analysis, statistical compilations, and manipulations.
Field Research includes non-participative direct observation, Participant observation, Mass observation, Mail questionnaires, Opinionairem, Personal interviews, Focused interviews, Group interviews, Telephone surveys, Case studies and life history. For this kind of research techniques such as Interactional recording, possible use of tape recorders, Recording mass behaviour, Identification of social and economic background of respondents, Use of attitude scales, and projective techniques, Used as a survey technique for information or discerning opinion, Cross-sectional collection of data for intensive analysis. For the personal and group interviews, techniques such as a detailed schedule with open and closed questions, and small groups of respondents are interviewed simultaneously.
Laboratory research also involves studies of play and role analysis in small groups and research on irrational behaviour. Techniques utilised for this strategy include the employment of observers and audio-visual recording equipment.
The study of methodologies and gaining knowledge of the rationale behind the choices of these approaches for the research constitute the research methodology. The steps made in the research are logically justified by the research methodology. The methods used to generate results are described in the research methodology. The research process is guided by research methodology.
The word methodology derives its name from the word ‘method’ and 'ology,' where 'ology' is a general term for a field of study or a body of knowledge. So in general terms, methodology is the study of methods.
A research methodology is a strategy for approaching a subject methodically. It is the scientific study of how scientific research is conducted. For example, A scientist conducting a study on a medication's effects must carefully evaluate and justify their research decisions, including sample size, outcome measures, study duration, and statistical analysis methods. The transparency makes it possible for other researchers to assess the methods and design of the study, advancing scientific understanding.
Need for a Researcher to Know about Research Method and Methodology
The researcher must be conversant with both the methodology and the research methods/techniques. They must comprehend which of these approaches or strategies are pertinent and which are not, as well as what they would signify, what they would mean, and why. Additionally, they must know how to create certain tests or indices, compute the mean, the mode, the median, or the standard deviation, and use specialised research methods.
Research methods are the processes used to acquire and evaluate data. The development of your research approach is an essential part of your study. What are the steps a researcher followed in his research? Like
What information to gather,?
Where to gather the information?
How to gather it?
How to analyse it?
In every official academic research project, you can find a chapter or part on research methodology covering. A strong methodology justifies the methodological decisions taken, which is crucial. To put it another way, the methodology chapter should prove that the methods chosen are the best suitable for the study's aims, objectives, and main issues to justify the decisions made about the research hypothesis.
Problems Encountered by Researchers in India
Indian researchers, especially those who perform empirical studies, have a lot of challenges to overcome. These are only a few of the important problems:
1. The lack of scientific training in research methodology is a major barrier for researchers in our nation. Without knowledge of research methodologies, researchers take a jump into the dark. The majority of work done under the guise of research is not methodologically sound. For many researchers, the research consists primarily of cutting and pasting without any analysis of the materials that have been gathered.
2. Insufficient interaction: Lack of communication exists between corporate businesses, governmental organisations, and research institutions on the one hand, and university research departments on the other. A sizable portion of original data that is not confidential is ignored or handled by the researchers due to a lack of proper engagement.
3. Research studies overlapping: Due to a lack of sufficient data, research investigations frequently overlap. Duplication happens as a result of resource waste. This problem can be fixed by regularly creating and updating a list of the subjects and places where research is being done.
4. Library management and functioning: Researchers frequently spend more time and effort locating books, journals, papers, etc. than they do locating material that is relevant to their study because many libraries do not have proper management and operation.
5. The difficulty of adequate and timely secretarial assistance: The challenges in obtaining timely, competent secretarial support: This adds needless time to the execution of research investigations. All reasonable efforts should be taken in this direction so that researchers can quickly and effectively get secretarial support.
Key Differences Between Research Method and Research Methodology
Research methods only cover a small portion of the research methodology. The research methodology includes both the explanation for the methods employed in the context of the research as well as the usage of a specific technique or method
The focus of the research is on the methods and equipment utilised to collect data.
The focus of the Research methodology is on the general plan and structure of the study.
A research method requires particular processes and actions to gather data.
The researcher chooses the best research methods with the aid of research methodology.
The kind of data to be gathered and analysed is determined by the research methodology.
Research technique offers a methodical way to carry out research.
Research techniques include things like surveys, experiments, interviews, and observations.
The research methodology includes mixed, quantitative, and qualitative techniques.
Data collecting and analysis procedures are referred to as research methods.
Research philosophy and theory are related to the foundations of research technique.
Focusing on the useful applications of research, research methodology is more palpable and concrete.
The focus of the research methodology is on the theoretical components, making it more abstract and conceptual.
The research method is unique to a given research project or study.
Research methodology can be used in a variety of research studies and initiatives.
The validity and reliability of study findings are determined by the research methodology.
The research methodology determines the general reliability and soundness of the study.
The instruments and procedures used in research are of interest.
The framework and strategy used in the research process are the subject of research methodology.
As a researcher, the starting point of research is to develop our research methodology. The primary goal of the research shall be exploratory. It is suggested that the research be qualitative, quantitative data gathering and analysis techniques. These three things one should think about research's purpose, goals, and research questions, the methods used in the literature already published, constraints and realities.
A research methodology centres around applying the appropriate research methods to a research issue in a methodical way. A precise research methodology is essential for the consistency and accuracy of the results that the research methods deliver.
 C.R Kothari, Research Methodology, Second Revised Edition, New Age International Publishers
 Hitesh Bhasin, 7 Key Differences Between Research Method and Research Methodology, Available Here
 What Is Research Methodology?, Available Here