Exploring the various types of research opens doors to new insights, offering readers a rich tapestry of approaches to expand knowledge horizons.

Exploring the various types of research opens doors to new insights, offering readers a rich tapestry of approaches to expand knowledge horizons.


Research is the systematic and scientific pursuit of relevant information on a particular topic. Research is one of the most crucial tools of study. After researching a particular topic or subject a person can gain a deep and thorough understanding of it. The majority of the conclusions drawn from such are intended to improve society and advance understanding of topics that have not been discussed extensively in the past.

These researchers use research as a scientific tool to measure sample data with a much greater accuracy rate and as few biases as possible. This enables them to confidently provide a conclusion to society, knowing that the data collected is legitimate and that the study's conclusions are methodical and statistically sound. Researchers use a variety of research methods depending on what works best for their topic.

Objective of Research

Because the study's conclusions are rigorous and statistically sound, the researchers can present their findings to society with confidence. Various research methods are employed by researchers based on what is most effective for their particular topic. This article will look at many research methodologies grouped based on common traits and uses. An effective research engagement necessitates having well-stated research objectives. Finding solutions to questions by applying scientific methods is the goal of the study. The primary goal of research is to uncover the truth that is concealed and has not yet been found. While every research project has a unique aim, we can categorize research purposes into the following general groups:

  1. To become more acquainted with a phenomenon or to obtain fresh perspectives on it (studies that have this objective in mind are called exploratory or formulating research studies);
  2. To accurately depict the features of a specific person, circumstance, or group (studies that have this objective in mind are called descriptive research studies).

The following are a few of the goals listed below:

  • To produce fresh information.
  • To become more acquainted with or to obtain a fresh understanding of a phenomenon.
  • To look into a topic or issue that is currently happening.
  • To build a new process or system from scratch.
  • To investigate and evaluate broader topics.
  • To look at certain current issues or circumstances.
  • To evaluate an idea or a hypothesis.
  • To find trends or patterns associated with the issue.

Types of Research

There are various sorts of research depending on several aspects, including the procedure, outcome, and goal. These are described in more detail below,

Research kinds are categorized according to their goal, level of analysis, time, and cost-effectiveness. For their investigation, researchers are likely to combine several sorts.

1. Fundamental Research

Extending knowledge and understanding is the goal of fundamental research, usually referred to as basic research, as opposed to addressing a particular, useful problem. Without necessarily having any direct application, its goal is to investigate and comprehend the underlying ideas and principles of a phenomenon.

Here are some essential details regarding basic research:

Goals: It seeks to improve general scientific knowledge and comprehension, frequently setting the stage for later technical breakthroughs and applied research.

Focus: Theoretical notions, guiding principles, and the underlying mechanisms of social or natural events are the main areas of study for fundamental research.

Techniques: It frequently entails the creation of fresh hypotheses, tenets, or models in addition to the observation, analysis, and testing of preexisting ones through experiments.

Examples of fundamental research include investigations into the underlying principles of economics and sociology, physics to comprehend the fundamental forces of the universe, and biology to explore basic biological processes.

2. Conceptual/Theoretical research

Also referred to as fundamental or pure research. When a researcher wishes to learn more about a specific subject without taking into account its practical applications, they turn to theoretical study. Developing new theories, conceptions, or understandings of a certain phenomenon is the goal of conceptual research, sometimes referred to as theoretical study. This kind of research concentrates on synthesising and evaluating the body of current knowledge, concepts, and hypotheses rather than gathering empirical data or conducting experiments.

Important details regarding conceptual research are listed below under research methodology:

Emphasis on Abstract Ideas: Rather than on tangible, observable events, conceptual research concentrates on theories and abstract concepts. To create new theoretical frameworks, models, or conceptualizations, researchers conduct conceptual research.

Investigation and Analysis: Scholars engaged in conceptual research investigate and evaluate extant theories, concepts, or notions within a certain domain. They might aim to offer completely original conceptual frameworks or try to expand, improve, and clarify already-existing theories.

No Empirical Data collecting: Empirical research entails the collecting and analysis of data from experiments or observations, whereas conceptual research does not. Rather, it depends on previously published works, accepted theories, and sound logic.

Synthesis and Critical Thinking: Conceptual research frequently calls for the synthesis of prior knowledge and critical thinking. It is essential to the creation of theoretical frameworks and the advancement of knowledge in these domains.

3. Empirical research

Empirical research involves observing real-world phenomena and measuring relevant variables using reliable and valid methods.

Data Collection: Researchers collect data through various methods such as surveys, experiments, interviews, observations, and archival records.

Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis: Empirical research can involve quantitative analysis (using statistical techniques to analyze numerical data) or qualitative analysis (examining non-numerical data such as texts, images, or observations).

4. Applied research

Applied research aims to find a solution to an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organisation.

5. Descriptive research

One kind of research methodology called descriptive research seeks to characterize the features of the population or phenomenon under study. Surveys and various forms of fact-finding inquiries are included in descriptive research. The primary goal of descriptive research is to describe the current state of circumstances.

Ex post facto research is a word frequently used in social science and business research to describe descriptive research projects. The primary feature of this approach is that the researcher can only describe what has occurred or is occurring; he has no control over the variables. The majority of ex post facto research initiatives are descriptive, aiming to quantify variables like people's preferences, shopping frequency, or comparable data.

This, too, just focuses on identifying the traits the phenomenon exhibits rather than the causes, therefore it does not delve very far into the phenomenon itself. Researchers must ensure that they are not altering or disrupting the observed occurrences. It concentrates on presenting a thorough overview of the current situation to respond to "what" questions.

Illustration: Studies that outline the characteristics of a certain community, the frequency of a certain medical problem, or the range of viewpoints on a given topic are a few instances of descriptive research.

Benefits: It offers a deep, comprehensive grasp of a specific topic or group of people. To find patterns and associations that might need more inquiry, descriptive research can be a useful starting point for a study.

Restrictions: Descriptive research is useful for giving an overview of a situation, but it cannot explain the existence of certain traits or their relationships. The formation of cause-and-effect links is prohibited by it.

6. Analytical research

In the context of research technique, analytical research is a kind of study that aims to comprehend the fundamental elements or ideas that underpin a certain occurrence. It entails the methodical study of a subject, issue, or problem to comprehend its essence, constituent parts, and interconnections better.

Comprehensive investigation: It probes the intricacies of a study subject to identify trends, connections, and contributing elements.

Applications: It is frequently applied in domains where decision-making and problem-solving require a grasp of underlying concepts, including the social sciences, natural sciences, and business.

7. Explanatory research

Explanatory research is a type of research design that aims to explain the relationships between variables. It seeks to identify and understand the underlying causes and factors that contribute to a particular phenomenon. This type of research often follows exploratory research, which helps to identify initial patterns or relationships, and descriptive research, which provides a detailed description of the phenomenon under study.

8. Exploratory research

Exploratory research, as its name implies, is a preliminary investigation into subjects that have not yet been thoroughly studied. It serves as a guide for the more in-depth research that will be conducted in light of this theory. Since it's not comprehensive research, its main objective is to gather information that can help understand the phenomena' causes. When examining a theme or issue that's moderately modern, new, or ineffectively caught on, an exploratory inquiry about technique is utilized. Exploratory research's main objective is to memorize more about a subject; it isn't to test speculations or offer conclusive arrangements.

Objective: To improve comprehension of an issue, pinpoint conceivable variables and associations, and create speculations for more examination.

Strategies: Both quantitative and subjective approaches, such as overviews with open-ended questions and centre bunches, perception, and interviews, are regularly utilized in the exploratory investigation.

9. Quantitative research

In quantitative research, closed-ended questions are structured in a way that limits respondents to choose from predefined response options, often in the form of multiple-choice questions or rating scales. This format allows researchers to easily quantify and analyze the responses.

10. Qualitative research

Large amounts of descriptive data from the sample are gathered, contrasted, and analyzed through qualitative research. This information is frequently gathered through focus groups, interviews, and surveys where participants are free to freely share their ideas in response to open-ended questions. Large amounts of data from qualitative research typically require data coding or labelling to be analyzed.


To collect, analyze, and interpret data to assess hypotheses, researchers can benefit from the methodical and structured framework provided by research methodology. The many forms of research methodology guarantee the validity, significance, and dependability of the findings.

● Your research findings gain credibility when your technique is well outlined.

● It makes it easier for other researchers to carry out similar studies and verify your findings.

● Various research objectives and data kinds call for diverse approaches. Selecting the appropriate one guarantees that you collect accurate and precise data.

● Making the right research methodology choice aids in resource allocation optimization. It guarantees that you make efficient use of your time, money, and resources to accomplish the goal of your research.


The various kinds lead you through the intricate terrain of data collecting and analysis in the fascinating field of study. The various forms of research methods are fundamental to gathering reliable data to solve issues and verify theories. Adhere to the different kinds previously discussed, together with some advice and their significance, to arm your project with the appropriate approach and produce significant findings. The blueprint or framework used to carry out a research study is called a research design. All of these aspects are addressed by a carefully considered research design.


[1] C. R. Kothari, Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques, 2nd Edition, 2004

[2] What is Research Methodology?, Available Here

[3] Types of Research Methods: Examples and Tips, Available Here

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Vaishnavi Parate

Vaishnavi Parate

Vaishnavi is a Human Rights Activist at All India Human Rights Association. She is currently pursuing an L.LM. in Criminal Law.

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