100 Important Statutes you must know as a citizen of India considering the fact we have laws in the form of statutes that have directly or indirectly affected each and every one of us. Our legislator that is Parliament has framed law on almost each and every sector be it a crime, civil, environment, finance, personal laws, citizenship, tax and whatnot. In this article we will try to list out such 100 must know statutes for you.
100 Important Statutes You Must Know
66. The Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971
The Act envisages that whoever in any public place or in any other place within public view burns, mutilates, defaces, defiles, disfigures, destroys, tramples upon or brings into contempt (whether by words, either spoken or written, or by acts) the Indian National Flag or the Constitution of India shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.
67. The Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002
The Act forms the core of the legal framework put in place by India to combat Money Laundering. The provisions of this act are applicable to all financial institutions, banks (Including RBI), mutual funds, insurance companies, and their financial intermediaries. The Act levied a fine up to Rs 5 lakh, but the 2012 amendment act has removed this upper limit. It has provided for provisional attachment and confiscation of property of any person involved in such activities.
68. The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006
This Act replaced the Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929 which was enacted during the British era. The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act presently allows for child marriages, between a boy of under 21 years and a girl under 18 years of age. It defines a child to mean a male below 21 years and female below 18 years.
69. The Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013
The act seeks to reinforce this ban by prohibiting manual scavenging in all forms and ensures the rehabilitation of manual scavengers to be identified through a mandatory survey. It prohibits the construction or maintenance of unsanitary toilets, the engagement or employment of anyone as a manual scavenger violation could result in a years’ imprisonment or a fine of INR 50,000 or both. It further prohibits a person from being engaged or employed for hazardous cleaning of a sewer or a septic tank.
70. The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012
The Act is specific to the protection of children from sexual abuses. “Children” according to the Act are individuals aged below 18 years. The Act is gender-neutral. It includes different forms of sexual abuse including but not limited to sexual harassment, pornography, penetrative & non-penetrative assault are defined in the Act.
71. The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001
The Act is in conformity with International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV), 1978. The legislation recognizes the contributions of both commercial plant breeders and farmers in plant breeding activity and also provides to implement TRIPs in a way that supports the specific socio-economic interests of all the stakeholders including private, public sectors and research institutions, as well as resource-constrained farmers.
The primary objective of the Act is to establish an effective system for the protection of plant varieties, the rights of farmers and plant breeders and to encourage the development of new varieties of plants.
72. The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005
The Act protects the women from the violence, she faces in the place she lives in. It primarily meant for the protection of wife or female live-in partners however it also extends to sisters, widows, or mothers.
73. The Provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act (PESA), 1996
The Act covers the “Scheduled Areas”, which are not covered in the 73rd Constitutional amendment. This particular act extends the provisions of Part IX to the Scheduled Areas of the country. PESA brought powers further down to the Gram Sabha level. The Gram Sabha in the Panchayat Act were entrusted with wide ranging powers starting from consultation on land acquisition to that of ownership over minor forest produces and leasing of minor minerals.
74. The Repealing and Amending Act, 2017
The Act was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 25 July 2019 by the Minister of Law and Justice, Ravi Shankar Prasad. The bill sought to repeal 58 Acts and pass minor amendments to two Acts. The amendments were made to substitute certain words in the Income Tax Act, 1961 and The Indian Institutes of Management Act, 2017.
75. The Representation of the People Act, 1950
The Act was passed by the Parliament in accordance with Article 327 of the Constitution of India. This Act makes provisions for seat allocation in the Lok Sabha and the Legislative Assemblies through direct elections, voters’ qualifications for the elections, delimitation of constituencies for both Lok Sabha and Assembly elections etc.
76. The Representation of the People Act, 1951
The Act regulates the actual conduct of elections and by-elections. It provides administrative machinery for conducting elections and deals with the registration of political parties. It specifies the qualifications and disqualifications for membership of the Houses.
77. The Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934
The Act establishes the Reserve Bank of India and regulates the issue of Bank notes and keeping of reserves with a view to securing monetary stability in India and generally to operate the currency and credit system of the country to its advantage.
78. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009
The Act aims to provide primary education to all children aged 6 to 14 years. It enforces Education as a Fundamental Right (Article 21). The act mandates 25% reservation for disadvantaged sections of the society where disadvantaged groups include SCs and STs, Socially Backward Class and Differently abled.
79. The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013
The Act establishes under the Constitution lays a humane, participative, informed and transparent process for land acquisition for industrialisation, development of essential infrastructural facilities and urbanisation with the least disturbance to the owners of the land and other affected families and provide just and fair compensation to the affected families whose land has been acquired.
80. The Right to Information Act, 2005
The Act provides for setting out the practical regime of right to information for citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities, in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority.
81. The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016
The Act provides that the appropriate government shall ensure that the person with a disability enjoys the right to equality, life with dignity, and respect for his or her own integrity equally with others. It is stipulated in Section 3 that no person with disability shall be discriminated against on the ground of disability unless it is shown that the impugned act or omission is a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim and no person shall be deprived of his personal liberty only on the ground of disability.
82. The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989
The Act delineates specific crimes against Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes as atrocities, and describes strategies and prescribes punishments to counter these acts. The Act identifies what acts constitute “atrocities.” All offences listed in the Act are cognizable. The police can arrest the offender without a warrant and start an investigation into the case without taking any orders from the court.
83. The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006
The Act was enacted to recognize and vest the forest rights and occupation of forest land in forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers, who have been residing in such forests for generations, but whose rights could not be recorded.
84. The Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992
The Act establishes the Security and Exchange Board of India to protect the interests of investors in securities and to promote the development of, and to regulate the securities market.
85. The Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interests (SARFAESI) Act, 2002
The Act is more commonly known by its shorter name SARFAESI Act, is a legislation that allows banks and other financial organizations to recover bad loans effectively. The act can be utilized to tackle the problem of Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) through different procedures. However, this is possible only for secured loans. For unsecured loans, banks should move the court to file a civil case of defaulting. This act makes court’s intervention unnecessary in case of secured loans. The first asset reconstruction company (ARC) of India, ARCIL, was set up under this act.
86. The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013
The Act provides for the protection against sexual harassment of women at workplace and for the prevention and redressal of complaints of sexual harassment. It mandates that every employer constitute an Internal Complaints Committee (ICC) at each office or branch with 10 or more employees.
87. The Special Marriage Act, 1954
The Act was made to validate and register interreligious and inter-caste marriages in India. It allows two individuals to solemnise their marriage through a civil contract. No religious formalities are needed to be carried out under the Act.
88. The States Reorganisation Act, 1956
The Act reformed the boundaries of Indian states and territories, systematizing them on language base.
89. The Telegraph Act, 1885
The Act was intended to give the Central Government power to establish telegraphers the use of wired and wireless telegraphy, telephones, teletype, radio communications and digital data communications. It gives the Government of India exclusive jurisdiction and privileges for establishing, maintaining, operating, licensing and oversight of all forms of wired and wireless communications within Indian territory.
90. The Trade Marks Act, 1999
The Act deals with the protection, registration and prevention of fraudulent use of trademarks. It also deals with the rights of the holder of the trademark, penalties for infringement, remedies for the damaged as well as modes of transference of the trademark.
91. The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019
The Act has been framed for the welfare of transgender persons. It defines a transgender person as one whose gender does not match the gender assigned at birth. It includes trans-men and trans-women, persons with intersex variations, gender-queers, and persons with socio-cultural identities, such as kinnar and hijra.
92. The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967
The Act assigns absolute power to the central government, by way of which if the Centre deems an activity as unlawful then it may, by way of an Official Gazette, declare it so. It has death penalty and life imprisonment as the highest punishments. Under UAPA, both Indian and foreign nationals can be charged. It will be applicable to the offenders in the same manner, even if crime is committed on a foreign land, outside India.
93. The Unorganised Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008
The act provides for the constitution of National Social Security Board at the Central level which shall recommend the formulation of social security schemes viz life and disability cover, health and maternity benefits, old age protection and any other benefit as may be determined by the Government for unorganised workers.
94. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
The Act provides for maintenance and restoration of quality of all types of surface and groundwater. It defines the terms like pollution, sewage effluent, trade effluent, stream, and boards.
95. The Whistle Blowers Protection Act, 2014
The act establishes a mechanism to receive complaints related to disclosure of allegations of corruption or wilful misuse of power or discretion, against any public servant, and to inquire or cause an inquiry into such disclosure.
96. The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
The Act provides for the safeguard and protection of the wildlife (flora and fauna) in the country.
97. The Works of Defence Act, 1903
The Act provide for imposing restrictions upon the use and enjoyment of land in the vicinity of works of defence in order that such land may be kept free from buildings and other obstructions, and for determining the amount of compensation to be made on account of such imposition.
98. Wakf Act, 1995
The Act provide for the better administration of Auqaf and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
99. Weapons of Mass Destruction and their Delivery Systems (Prohibition of Unlawful Activities) Act, 2005
This Act prohibits unlawful activities, in relation to weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems.
100. The Working Journalists (Fixation of Rates of Wages) Act, 1958
This Act provides for the fixation of rates of wages in respect of working journalists.