This research paper by Mulchand Saraswati & Aanchal Jaiswal delves into Goods and Services Tax(GST) in depth. The paper endeavours to focus on the significant role played by GST in the field of indirect tax reforms in India. GST proved to be beneficial in mitigating the ill effects of double taxation in a major way and definitely paved… Read More »

This research paper by Mulchand Saraswati & Aanchal Jaiswal delves into Goods and Services Tax(GST) in depth. The paper endeavours to focus on the significant role played by GST in the field of indirect tax reforms in India. GST proved to be beneficial in mitigating the ill effects of double taxation in a major way and definitely paved a way for the common national market. GST has been designed to give India a world-class tax system and improve tax collections.

Introduction to Genesis of Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India

Indirect taxation in India witnessed a paradigm shift on July 01, 2017, ushering into a unified tax regime whereby an associate outsized range of Central and State indirect taxes were amalgamated into one tax – goods and Services Tax (GST). It was the Constitution (101st Amendment) Act, 2016, that paved the way for the introduction of GST in India.

In the following year, on the twenty-seventh of March 2017, the Central GST legislations-Central goods and Services bill, 2017, Integrated goods and Services bill, 2017, Union Territory Goods and Services bill, 2017, and goods and Services Tax (Compensation to States) Bill, 2017 were introduced in Lok Sabha. Lok Sabha passed these bills on twenty-ninth March 2017 and with the receipt of the President’s assent on twelfth April 2017, the Bills were enacted. With impact from 1st July 2017, the historic tax reform – GST was introduced. GST has subsumed multiple indirect taxes like excise duty, service tax, VAT, CST, luxury tax, entertainment tax, entry tax, etc.

France was the first country to implement VAT/GST in 1954. Presently, over one hundred sixty countries have implemented VAT/GST in some kind of alternative.

Concept and benefits of GST

GST is also a value-added tax levied on supply i.e., manufacture or sale of products and provision of services. Since exclusivity, the value of a lot at each stage is taxed to a lower place and truly except GST, there’s no tax on tax or cascading of taxes below the GST system.

  • Creation of a unified national market
  • Boost to ‘Make in India‘ initiative
  • Enhanced investment and employment
  • Ease of doing business
  • Certainty in tax administration
  • Automated procedures with greater use of IT
  • Reduction in compliance costs
  • Mitigation of unwell effects of cascading
  • Benefits to small traders associated with entrepreneurs in an industry

Constitutional Provisions

Article 246A (Power to create laws with relevant goods and Services Tax):

This article grants power to Center and State Governments to form laws with relevance GST obligatory by Center or such State. The Center has the exclusive power to create laws with relevance to GST simply just in case of inter-State providance of goods and/or services.

Article 269A (Levy and collection of GST on inter-State supply):

Article 269A stipulates that GST provides at intervals the course of inter-State trade or commerce shall be levied and picked up by the Government of India and such tax shall be dealt out between the Union and thus the States at intervals make the way as is additionally provided by Parliament by law on the recommendations of the Goods and Services Tax Council.

Article 279A (GST Council) :

Article 279A of the Constitution empowers the President to represent a joint forum of the center and States specifically, the Goods & Services Tax Council (GST Council).

Supply and Charge under GST

The idea of ‘supply’ is the keystone of the GST architecture. The architecture event nonexempt GST is obtainable. The scope of providing below GST is known in terms of the following parameters: Supply needs to be of goods or services, Supply needs to be created for a consideration, Supply needs to be created inside the course or furtherance of business.

The very basis for the charge of tax in any taxing statute is the nonexempt event i.e the incidence of the event that triggers the levy of tax. The ratable event underneath GST is supplied. CGST and SGST/UTGST are levied on all intra-State suppliers of goods and/or services whereas IGST is levied on all interstate suppliers of goods and/ or services.

Inter-State supply: As a general rule, where the placement of the supplier and additionally the place of supply of goods or services are inside a similar State/Union territory, it’s treated as intra-State of goods or services respectively.

Equally, where the placement of the supplier and also the place of supply of goods or services area unit in (i) a pair of entirely completely different States or (ii) a pair of different Union Territories or (iii) a State and a Union territory, it’s treated as Associate in Nursing inter-State supply of goods or services severally.

Exemptions from GST

Exempt provision has been outlined as providance of any goods or services or every that draws a zero rate of tax or which can be all exempt from tax and includes the non-taxable supply. Examples of supplies not leviable to tax are alcoholic liquor for human consumption, mere fossil oil merchandise specifically oil Crude, High-Speed Diesel, Motor Spirit (commonly known as Petrol), gas, and Aviation Turbine Fuel.

Under GST, essential goods/services, i.e. public consumption products/services, are exempted. Things like unbranded atta/maida/besan, unpacked food grains, milk, eggs, curd, lassi, and up-to-date vegetables are among the items exempted from GST. Further, essential services like health are exempted. Care services, education services, etc. have in addition been exempted.

Time and Value of Supply

GST is collectible on the provision of goods or services. A provider consists of parts that will be separated in time, like papers/agreement, despatch (of goods), delivery (of goods) or provision or performance of service, entry inside the records, payment, and entry of the payment inside the records or deposit inside the bank. In different words, time of supply indicates the purpose in time once the liability to pay tax arises.

Events like the issue of invoices, invoice factoring, receipt of payment, provision of service, and receipt of services as recorded in books of account ought to be analyzed to envision the time of supply once the tax on provide is collectible underneath forward charge. Once the tax on goods is below reverse charge, events like the date of receipt of goods, date of creating a payment, date of issue of invoice, etc. ought to be analyzed to envision the time of supply.

As GST is a poster Valorem levy, i.e. it’s levied as a proportion of the value of provide of goods and/or services, it becomes the way to know some way to achieve the worth on which a tax is to be paid. The price of supply goods or services or each shall be the dealing value, that is that the worth really paid or owed for the same supply of goods or services or each wherever the supplier and therefore the recipient of the availability don’t seem to be connected and therefore the value is that the sole consideration for the supply.

Inclusions in worth u/s 15(2)

  • Taxes apart from GST
  • Third-party payments created by the recipient in respect to supply, that supplier was vulnerable to pay and weren’t enclosed within the value
  • Incidental expenses, as well as something, are done by the supplier in respect of {the supply(the availability)the provision} until delivery of goods/ supply of services is charged to the recipient
  • Subsidies are directly connected to the cost of providing aside from those given by Central/State Governments
  • Interest/late fee/penalty for delay in payment of thought. Exclusions from price u/s 15(2)
  • Discounts are given before or at the time of supply and recorded within the Post supply discount/incentive if known prior to & connected with invoices and proportionate input reduction reversed by the recipient.

Input Reduction

The GST regime guarantees seamless credit on goods and services across the complete supply chain with some exceptions like supply charged to tax below composition theme supply of exempted goods and/or services. ITC is taken into account to be the lifeline of the GST regime. In fact, it’s the provisions of ITC, that primarily build GST a price additional tax i.e., assortment of tax in the slightest degree points of the availability chain once permitting credit of tax paid at earlier points.

Given below are the salient options of the scheme of ITC :

  • The scheme is meant to avoid the cascading impact of taxes and build GST as a destination-based tax.
  • Broadly, ITC is out there on all inputs, input services, and capital goods used for purposes of the business of a taxable person.
  • Since ITC may be available for payment of tax on taxable output supply, as a natural corollary, ITC isn’t accessible once the tax isn’t owed on output supply, i.e. on exempt supply.
  • The exception to the higher than principle is ‘zero-rated supply’, i.e. exports or supply to a special economic zone (SEZ) developer/unit, wherever ITC is out there notwithstanding no tax is owed on output supply.
  • If common inputs, input services, and capital goods are used for taxable additionally as exempt supply, solely proportionate ITC due to the taxable supply.


Registration lawfully acknowledges an individual as a provider of products or services or each and lawfully authorizes him to Collect taxes from his customers and expire the credit of the taxes paid on goods or services supplied to the purchasers/recipients. He will claim the input reduction of taxes paid and might utilize a similar payment of taxes due on the supply of products or services.

Registration ensures the seamless flow of input reduction from suppliers to recipients at the national level. Below GST law, a provider is needed to get State-wise registration. there’s no construct of a centralized registration below GST just like the erstwhile service tax regime. A Supplier should get registration in each State/UT from wherever he makes a taxable supply provided his combination turnover exceeds a nominal threshold limit. Thus, he’s not needed to get registration from a State/UT from wherever he makes a non-taxable supply.

Tax invoice, Debit, and Credit Notes, E-Way Bill

Invoicing could be a terribly crucial side for making certain tax compliance below any indirect taxation system.

In order to make sure transparency, the issue of invoices for each taxable dealing could be a requirement. Just in case of providing goods or provision of services, an associate degree invoice is raised by the supplier of such goods or services to the recipient of a similar. Under GST, a tax invoice is a crucial document. It does not solely evidence supply of products or services, however, is additionally a vital document for the recipient to avail Input reduction (ITC). A registered person cannot avail of input reduction unless he’s in possession of a tax invoice or a debit note.

In order to monitor the movement of goods to regulate any nonpayment, an associate degree e-way bill system has been introduced. Below this technique, a remunerator – before movement of products via a conveyance would inform every transaction’s details to the tax department, get associate degree acknowledgment variety for having so well-read, and so use this acknowledgment variety as a sound document incidental to the conveyance carrying goods.

Payment and return of tax

In the GST regime, for any intra-state provider, taxes are to be paid at the Central GST (CGST), going into the account of the Central Government, and therefore the State GST(SGST)/UTGST, going into the account of the involved government. For any inter-state provider, the tax to be paid is Integrated GST (IGST) having parts of each CGST and SGST.

The term “return” commonly suggests an announcement of data (facts) appointed by the remunerator, to tax directors, at regular intervals. The data to be appointed usually includes the small print related to the character of activities/business operations forming the topic matter of taxation; the life of taxation like sale worth, turnover, or value; deductions and exemptions; and determination and discharge of liabilities for a given amount.


GST is the most comprehensive tax reform of India. Its main agenda is to streamline indirect taxation and remove the barrier hindering the smooth passage of trade- both within the country and overseas. With the words of Ashish Goel

“GST is going to be a game-changer for most industries and especially for e-commerce”.


[1] The genesis of GST in India, Available Here

[2] V.Balachandran, Textbook of GST and Customs Law, Available Here

[3] Goods And Services Tax, Available Here

[4] The Constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016, Available Here

[5] Exemptions from GST, Available Here

[6] Introduction to Goods and Services Tax, Available Here

Updated On 2 Dec 2023 8:00 AM GMT
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